ARBOCARTO-v2 Mainland France
Aedes mosquitoes (Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are vectors of pathogenic agents that are responsible for diseases such as Chikungunya, Dengue fever and Zika. They are urban, diurnal mosquitoes that are particularly harmful in the early morning and evening. The female mosquito preferentially draws blood from humans, needing it for the maturation of her eggs, before laying them on any dry part of receptacles (usually small, whether natural or artificial). The eggs hatch into larvae when the receptacles are immersed by rain or watering of plants. In addition, adult mosquitoes feed and rest in vegetation.
With the globalisation of trade and global warming, Ae. albopictus in particular, commonly known as the "tiger mosquito", which initially came from South-East Asia, has spread to Europe in recent decades and has been able to "acclimatise" to our latitudes: by putting the eggs into hibernation in winter, for example – the so-called diapause.
In response to the growing epidemiological risk, the French Ministry of Health wished to finance the development of a demonstrator for predictive mapping of the population densities of Aedes vectors (Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti) on a suitable spatial scale for organising surveillance and control actions based on local entomological, meteorological and remote sensing data with high and very high spatial resolution, to determine land use (green belt, type of urbanisation). The maps produced by the tool make it possible to target, as a priority, places where there is a risk of abundance of mosquitoes, in order to guide social mobilisation measures for vector control and to adapt the actions of field teams to the conditions of neighbourhoods at risk. The predictions made by ARBOCARTO can be integrated into the national server of the Ministry of Health to be cross-referenced with epidemiological and entomological field data.
The ARBOCARTO V1 project (2018-2019) was part of the framework cooperation agreement signed by the Directorate General of Health (DGS), the Armed Forces Health Service and CNES, the French Space Agency. The ARBOCARTO V1 demonstrator has been developed by a Consortium which includes the Rhône-Alpes Interdepartmental Agreement for Mosquito Control (EID), EID-Atlantique, EID-Méditerranée, the Regional Health Agencies (ARS) of Nouvelle Aquitaine, Auvergne Rhône-Alpes, Occitanie and Martinique, the regional authority of Martinique, the CIRAD, the Institute for Research for Development (IRD) and Marie Demarchi, a freelance professional working at the Maison de la Télédétection. ARBOCARTO follows on from numerous research projects, particularly those carried out by CIRAD, and the operational tools developed as part of the Life project "Remote sensing and Anticipation» between 2009 and 2013 for EID Méditerranée and also the Alborun project developed for the Regional Health Agency of Reunion Island.
ARBOCARTO is a scalable application that can be easily configured. ARBOCARTO V1 already offers a simple interface, and accompanying tools (user manual, training kit (consisting of test data sets and training materials: presentation of the project and concepts + support for practical work). It works on office workstations with the only software constraint being the prior installation of JAVA 8.
The tool is being distributed to all regional health agencies that request it (in mainland France and its overseas territories) from 2020 onwards.
Thanks to the adaptations that have been planned for ARBOCARTO V2, it will be possible to use the tool for any geographical context for the two species, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus, whether or not they are diapausant.
The tool requires the daily input of updated meteorological data and environmental information to ensure the relevance of the predicted location of the mosquitoes. The aim of the other component of the SCO ARBOCARTO V2 project is to make it easy for non-specialists in geomatics and remote sensing to select the most suitable offers for the creation of these environmental data bases before signing contracts.
ARBOCARTO V2 will be available for use by health authorities in all regions that have already been colonized by Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in mainland France and its overseas regions. Tests concerning the production of partial updates of environmental data and comparison of the models produced from various datasets will focus on Montpellier and its region.
The deliverables include:
- on the one hand the new V2 release of the ARBOCARTO application which features the optimisation of certain functionalities, more user-friendly parameterisation windows and the integration of new vector control scenarios, plus an update of support tools (user manual etc.).
- and on the other hand, the drafting of a guide for health authorities concerning the procurement of services for creating or updating environmental data from satellite images.
- SPOT6/7, Sentinel-2, to supplement information from land-use databases.
- Land-use data: Urban Atlas, land-use produced by CES OSO, IGN (OCS GE)
- Open data: OpenStreetMap
- IRIS breakdown (INSEE – IGN)
- Meteorological data: daily rainfall and temperatures (Météo France)