This project aims to establish national indicators of urban overheating, associated vulnerability of the population and an assessment of mitigation strategies. The results, established using spatial data for albedo and land cover, will be freely available in the National Buildings Database (BDNB).

Satellite Data for the National Building Database  


The CSTB, french scientific and technical center for the building industry, has built the National Building Database (BDNB) which includes the identity card of 22 million buildings for residential use in metropolitan France. This identity card includes, among other things, the morphology or arrangement of buildings in relation to each other, structural and roofing materials, energy consumption and data from energy performance diagnoses.

The project aims to use this National Buildings Database (BDNB) and spatial data derived from satellite images to provide robust indicators related to local climate change at the community level (Figure 1).

The indicators are represented by the maximum intensity of the UHI (urban heat island) and the potential morbidity (heat stress) of citizens. In addition, the assessment of urban mitigation strategies will be considered as a complementary support to counterbalance the UHI effect.

The integration of the proposed indicators into the NBDB will allow stakeholders to prioritise their planning projects along three main axes:

  • the respective building stock and energy performance,
  • urban microclimate conditions and the risk of overheating,
  • the risk of heat stress morbidity in vulnerable citizens.
Descriptive S4BDNB

Figure 1: General description of the Sat4BDNB project.

BDNB extrait

Figure 2: The BDNB is structured at the "building" level, it contains an identity card for each of the 20 million buildings, residential or tertiary, on a national scale. CSTB

Application site(s)

Major cities in France:

  • La Rochelle
  • Toulouse
  • Marseille
  • Montpellier
  • Nice
  • Paris
  • Strasbourg



  • Sentinel-2 : Albedo calculation
  • Pléiades : vegetation in the city


  • BDNB: Energy performance diagnosis (DPE)
  • INSEE: distribution of the population according to age
  • IGN: spatial division of cities
  • MEREEN: Weather data

Results – Final products

  • Urban albedo products on a national scale
  • National database of buildings including an indicator of sensitivity to UHI (urban heat island) and morbidity (heat stress) of citizens, indicators associated with mitigation of the effect and the corresponding cost.


  • Sangiorgio, V., Fiorito, F. & Santamouris, M. Development of a holistic urban heat island evaluation methodology. Sci Rep 10, 17913 (2020). (Pour le calcul de l’indicateur ICU)
  • Roujean, Jean‐Louis, Marc Leroy, and Pierre‐Yves Deschamps. "A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 97.D18 (1992): 20455-20468.
  • Roujean, Jean-Louis, et al. "Surface albedo and toc-r 300 m products from PROBA-V instrument in the framework of Copernicus Global Land Service." Remote Sensing of Environment 215 (2018): 57-73

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